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HTTP请求中的form data和request payload的区别

发布时间:2015-01-27 14:45 类别:Java开发

今天帮朋友调试一个程序时发现用jQuery的ajax方法和post方法分别发送请求,在后台Servlet进行处理时结果是不一样的,比如用$.ajax方法发送请求时(data参数是一个JSON.stringify()处理后的字符串,而不是一个JSON对象),servlet里可以这样使用Gson来解析:

new Jsonparser().parse(request.getReader())

但此时是不可用request.getParam(key) 来取值的。

如果用$.post方法来发送请求(data参数是一个JSON对象,而不要再用JSON.stringify()处理为字符串了),结果恰恰相反。

在Chrome中调试发现,$.ajax发送的请求显示在request payload下面,而使用$.post方法发送的请求显示在form data下面。有什么区别呢?在万能的stackoverflow上找到答案了,有人问了这个问题What is the difference between form data and request payload?

When I send an AJAX Post request and send parameters in queryString in send() method,Chrome Developer Tool’s XHR capture tool shows the parameters under request payload. and when I use jquery’s post function, The tool shows parameters under Form Data section.

What is the difference ?

回答是:

you have not provided enough information how you use the send function, but I assume that you do not set mime type to specify you are sending form data

xhr.setRequestHeader("Content-type","application/x-www-form-urlencoded");

the data sent are in this case encoded as you encode a query string

xhr.send("name=foo&value=bar");

otherwise it will not be interpreted as form data by Developer Tools. jquery does majority of work for you in this regard.

关键就是设置Content-type这个Header为application/x-www-form-urlencoded,实际上对于常规的HTML页面上的form的Content-type默认就是这个值。

相似的问题还发生在AngularJS的$http方法中,How can I make angular.js post data as form data instead of a request payload? 这个问题竟然有77个“顶”,看来遇到此问题的人还真不少。

注:这个问题里说jQuery的ajax方法是可以的,我今天遇到是不可以的,这个需要再验证一下。

当然解决的方法是一样的:

$http({
    method: 'POST',
    url: url,
    data: xsrf,
    headers: {'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'}
})

ArgularJS的$http方法还支持全局设置:

$http.defaults.headers.post["Content-Type"] = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";

还有人专门针对这个问题写了篇博客,分析了原因Make AngularJS $http service behave like jQuery.ajax()

The difference is in how jQuery and AngularJS serialize and transmit the data. Fundamentally, the problem lies with your server language of choice being unable to understand AngularJS’s transmission natively—that’s a darn shame because AngularJS is certainly not doing anything wrong. By default, jQuery transmits data using Content-Type: x-www-form-urlencoded and the familiar foo=bar&baz=moe serialization. AngularJS, however, transmits data using Content-Type: application/json and { “foo”: “bar”, “baz”: “moe” } JSON serialization, which unfortunately some Web server languages—notably PHP—do not unserialize natively.

当然文章了给出了另外的一种处理方案,还没细读,这个问题先记录在这里,以后再做些例子来详细研究一下。

另外,如果做Server端的API,默认支持哪种请求为好呢?
原地址:http://yanhua365.github.io/posts/the-diffrence-between-form-data-and-request-payload.html

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